The Prophet of Islam, Hadhrat Muhammad (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) saw a dream that he peacefully entered Makkah al Mukarramah along with few of his Sahaabah (Companions) and performed ‘Umrah. When the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) mentioned this dream to his Sahaabah, they (around 1500 of them) gladly agreed to join the Prophet for ‘Umrah. This was the sixth year after Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam)’s Hijrah (Migration) to Madinah al Munawwarah.
The Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) and his Sahaabah started on this long journey from Madinah al Munawwarah to Makkah al Mukarramah and camped near the town of Hudaybiyyah on the outskirts of Makkah al Mukarramah. The Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) sent an emissary to Quraish to let them know that they have come just to perform ‘Umrah; that there was no other intention behind this visit; so, the Quraish should let them do the ‘Umrah peacefully and should not create any hindrance in this pilgrimage. The Prophet (PBUH) did this despite the fact that there was established tradition among the Arabs that people can freely come to perform ‘Umrah or ‘Hajj during the sacred months and they do not have to inform the Quraish about it.
But the Quraish, instead, started preparation for a war at Hudaybiyyah. The Sahaabah of the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) told them that we have not come to fight but only to perform ‘Umrah peacefully, and return to Madinah al Munawwarah. The Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) dispatched Hadhrat ‘Uthman to Makkah al Mukarramah to tell the Quraish that they should let the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) and his Sahaabah perform ‘Umrah peacefully. But when they stay of Hadhrat ‘Uthman delayed inside Makkah al Mukarramah, a rumor spread that the Quraish had killed Hadhrat ‘Uthman.
Responding to the situation, the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) informed the Sahaabah that we will not leave the place until the blood of Hadhrat ‘Uthman is not avenged. This led to the famous “Bai’ah (Allegiance) of Ridhwaan”. All Sahaabah started renewing their contract with Allah (Subhaanahu Wa Ta’aalaa) to die for his cause.
When the news came out that Hadhrat ‘Uthman is alive and Quraish are coming to negotiate a treaty with the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) and not to start a war. The gist of the treaty was:
» that Muslims shall return this year without performing ‘Umrah;
» that the Muslims may come next year for Umrah for 3 days with no war weapons with them;
» that in the coming year, the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) may come with his Sahaabah;
» that a ceasefire for 10 years will be effective;
» that if a Quraish’s person comes to Madinah al Munawwarah (even after accepting Islam) without the permission of his guardian, he will be returned back;
» that if anyone from Muslims’ side comes to Makkah al Mukarramah, he shall not be returned to Madinah al Munawwarah.
The Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) accepted the demands of the Quraish, which is commonly referred to as the “Treaty of Hudaibiyyah”. If we think about this agreement, it appears to be in favor of Quraish, but, in reality, it proved that the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) was an extraordinary visionary and followed only Divine Guidance. The agreement – that a Quraish’s person who goes to Madinah al Munawwarah must be returned to Makkah al Mukarramah, while the Quraish will not return a Muslim back to Madinah – sounds in favor of the Quraysh but in reality it turned out to be in favor of the Muslims. Some of the Sahaabah even thought that this was a weak agreement. But the facts, later on, proved that this agreement, in fact, was not weak but it was strong for the Muslims in the long run because it opened the door for further victories.
This event happened in year sixth Hijrah. After this the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) led the expedition of Khyber and finished the machinations of internal rebellion by the hypocrites of Madinah al Munawwarah. Then Muslims progressed further and grew stronger and the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) marched towards Makkah al Mukarramah with ten thousand people in the eighth year Hijrah. When they reached the outskirts of Makkah al Mukarramah, the Quraish surrendered without any resistance. Thus, the treaty of Hudaibiyyah became the precursor and a pillar for the victory of Makkah al Mukarramah. The Quraan says:
إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينً
“Surely! We have granted you an open victory.” (Al-Fath 48:1)
A decisive revolution took place after this. When the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) went to perform Hajj, then there were more than hundred thousand Muslims in ‘Arafat. This was a manifest victory for the Muslims.
A major incident in the life of the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) is quite important to mention.
The door of Ka’bah was opened every Monday and Thursday and people would use the occasion to have the honor of entering the sacred House. Once before Hijrah, the Holy Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) came with some of his Sahaabah in order to enter the Ka’bah. ‘Uthman ibn Talhah had not embraced Islam until that time. He stopped the Holy Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) in a rude manner. The Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) showed great restraint, tolerated his harsh words and then said: “O ‘Uthman! A day will come when you would perhaps see this key to the Ka’bah in my hands when I shall have the power and choice to give it to anyone I choose.”
‘Uthman ibn Talhah said: “If this happens, the Quraish will then be all uprooted and disgraced.”
He said: “No, the Quraish will then be all established and very honorable indeed.”
Saying this, the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) went into Ka’bah. After that, says Talhah, when I did a little soul-searching, I became convinced that whatever he has said is bound to happen. I made up my mind that I am going to embrace Islam then and there. But, my own people around me vehemently opposed the idea and everybody joined in to chide me on my decision. So, I was unable to convert to Islam.
Although the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) had firm conviction on the truth of his message, but the Infidels used to make fun of him and attach derogatory labels on him.
However, after the manifest victory people saw the result. All the derogatory labels that they used to attach to the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) were cast away by the victory and conquest of Makkah al Mukarramah. They accepted the fact that he was neither illusionist, nor crazy, nor soothsayer, nor poet. Every success and every victory provided the proof that all the claims made by the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) were true. The elites of Makkah al Mukarramah were standing before the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) in submission after their defeat. These were the same people who made the life of the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) and his Sahaabah a living hell. They did not leave any stone unturned, in order to inflict every possible harm and hardship in the path of the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam).
At that time, the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) went into the Ka’bah, offered Salaah (Prayers) inside, and when he came out, he returned the key to Talhah saying: “Here, take it. Now this key will always remain with your family right through the Last Day. Anyone who will take this key from you will be a tyrant.”
‘Uthman ibn Talhah says that with the key in my hand when he started walking off all delighted, the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) called me again, and said: “Remember ‘Uthman! Did I not tell you something way back? Has it come to pass, or has it not?”
Then he recalled what the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) had said before Hijrah, and submitted: “Yes! There is no doubt about it. Your word has come true.”
And that was the time when he the fold of Islam.
Enemies of the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) were standing in front of him. He asked them what punishment you deserve. They said: We know you are a just and moral person. So, do justice with us; punish us accordingly. But the Prophet (SallAllaho ‘Alaihe WaSallam) said:
قَالَ لَا تَثْرِيبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْيَوْمَ يَغْفِرُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَهُوَ أَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِينَ [يوسف: 92]
“No reproach upon you today! May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most- Merciful of all the merciful” (Yousuf 12:92)
This was not a struggle for acquiring power and authority. This was a struggle for winning hearts and minds. This was an unparalleled victory achieved by exemplary personality and high moral character. This was a victory of Truth over Falsehood:
وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا [الإسراء: 81]
“And say! ‘Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Falsehood is surely bound to vanish.” (Al-Israa 17:81)